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2017高职高考英语复习,阅读理解 题型分解与方法指导

2017-08-17 15:17http://www.fugaokao.com赴高考网

2017高职高考复习教材第五章 阅读理解

题型分解

该题型共有20小题,共40分。要求考生阅读几篇短文,每篇短文后有几个问题或留有空白处的句子。考生根据短文内容从所给的选择项中选出能回答问题或填入句子空白处的最佳选项。阅读理解是综合语言运用能力的一个重要方面,在高职高考中所占比重大,这是拉开档次的题目。近几年试卷中通常有四篇阅读文章,题材尽量多样化,包括日常生活、传说、人物、社会、文化、史地、科技、政治、经济等。体裁包括记叙文、描写文、说明文、议论文、应用文等。

  • 阅读理解五级的目标部分描述如下:
  • 1.根据上下文和构词法推断、理解生词的含义;
  • 2.理解段落中各句子之间的逻辑关系;
  • 3.能找出文章中的主题,理解故事的情节,预测故事情节的发展和可能的结局;
  • 4.能读懂常见体裁的阅读材料;
  • 5.能根据不同的阅读目的运用简单的阅读策略获取信息;

 

方法指导

  • 阅读理解考查的项目大多是根据这三种能力的要求设计的。为了提高阅读理解能力,做阅读理解时,考生就要在以下几个方面下功夫:
  • 1.要注意养成良好的阅读心理,阅读时要去掉杂念,心绪要安定,精神要专一,要形成一种惬意的顺向心理。切不可一遇到几个生词难句,就心烦意乱,失去自控能力。心理学家告诉我们,任何恐慌,过分紧张的情绪都会形成一种消极因素妨碍大脑的正常思维功能。因此,遇到困难一定要从容不迫,心无旁骛。这样才能对所读的文章印象清晰,理解深刻。
  • 2.要提高视读的速度,考阅读理解,从另一个方面来说,考的是视读速度。因此做阅读理解时,要注意培养自己快速阅读的习惯。阅读时眼球总是不断地移动——停顿——移动着。理解是在“眼停”的瞬间进行的。我们要使眼停的时间相对增加,就要扩大视读的广度,把逐词逐句的点式阅读变成一次扫描一句的线式阅读,并且把看到的东西迅速报告给大脑,形成眼脑较快的直映能力。切不可在个别难懂的词句上磨蹭,只要全篇理解了,个别难懂的词句可以根据上下文和构词法去猜测,去推断。
  •  
  • 3.阅读时要注意培养语感,所谓语感是指人们对语言中词语搭配及句型结构的熟练程度。语感好的人,理解力就强,视读的速度就快。阅读时要留心词语的搭配,即习惯用法。必要时可用笔划一划或记下来。读完每一篇文章,都应总结归纳一下,积累了多少单词,习惯用法和句型,这样语感自然就会好起来。
  • 4.阅读时要善于找关键句,特别要注意文章的第一段和最后一段的头一句话,往往就是关键句,可以帮助你掌握文章的全貌,理解文章的主题。此外,还应该细读文章,因为有时的试题是考细节。可以边读边用铅笔做点标记,把有关的人物、事件、时间、地点、原因(即五个W,who,what,when,where,why)划出来。
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  • 5.读完一篇文章后,要回味一番对文章的段落结构,中心思想,人物事件,论点论据要做到心中有数。对不清楚的地方可以再看几次。要留心关键词句,注意弦外之音。对文章的评价分析,一定要坚持“词不离句,句不离篇”,要理解文章作者的原意,而不能按你自己的意愿去想当然。切记:一想当然,就会出错。如果文章太长,你可以先把文章后面的问题看一遍,带着问题去看文章。这样可以帮助你去掉杂念,提高阅读速度和解题的正确性。

 

【例题】

  •   A friend of mine named Paul received an expensive car from his brother as a Christmas present.On Christmas Eve when Paul came out of his office,a street urchin(顽童)was walking around the shining car.“Is this your car,Paul?” he asked.
  •   Paul answered,“Yes,my brother gave it to me for Christmas.” The boy was surprised.“You mean your brother gave it to you and it didn’ t cost you anything? Boy,I wish...” he hesitated(犹豫).
  •   Of course Paul knew what he was going to wish for.He was going to wish he had a brother like that.But what the boy said surprised Paul greatly.
  •   “I wish,” the boy went on,“that I could be a brother like that.” Paul looked at the boy in surprise,then he said,“Would you like to take a ride in my car?”
  •   “Oh,yes,I’ d love that.”
  •   After a short ride,the boy turned and with his eyes shining,said,“Paul,would you mind driving in front of my house?”

Paul smiled a little.He thought he knew what the boy wanted.He wanted to show his neighbours that he could ride home in a big car.But Paul was wrong again,“Will you stop where those steps are?” the boy asked.

 

  •  He ran up to the steps.Then in a short while Paul heard him coming back,but he was not coming fast.He was carrying his little cripple(残疾)brother.He sat him down on the step and pointed to the car.
  •   “There he is,Buddy,just like I told you upstairs.His brother gave it to him for Christmas and it didn’ t cost him a cent.And some day I’ m going to give you one just like it...then you can see for yourself all the nice things in the Christmas window that I’ve been trying to tell you about.”
  •   Paul got out and lifted the boy to the front seat of his car.The shiningeyed older brother climbed in beside him and the three of them began an unforgettable holiday ride.

 

  • 这是一篇故事性很强的文章。文中涉及的人物有三个,主人公Paul,street urchin(马路顽童)和Buddy(顽童的残疾弟弟)。故事发生在圣诞节前夜,Paul的哥哥送给他一辆昂贵的小汽车作为圣诞礼物,马路顽童围着车看,问了Paul一些问题并提出了一些要求。这期间Paul有很多猜想,文章就是按照这一线索展开的,故事的结尾往往出人意料,是这一类文章的共同的特点。文章的命题如下:
  • 1.The street urchin was very surprised when   .

A.Paul received an expensive car

B.Paul told him about the car

C.he saw the shining car

D.he was walking around the car

【解析】B

可以看出,这是一道文章细节题,可以从文章第二段“Paul answered,‘Yes,my brother gave it to me for Christmas.’”“The boy was surprised.”中找到依据。

 

  • 2.From the story we can see the urchin    .

A.wished to give his brother a car

B.wanted Paul’ s brother give him a car

C.wished he could have a brother like Paul’ s

D.wished Paul could be a brother like that

【解析】A

这是一道推理分析题,从文章倒数第二段马路顽童对他弟弟讲的那段话可以分析出。

  •  
  • 3.The urchin asked Paul to stop his car in front of his house    .

A.to show his neighbours the big car

B.to show he had a rich friend

C.to let his brother ride in the car

D.to tell his brother about his wish

【解析】D

这是一道理解题。文章倒数第四段中 “But Paul was wrong again”是关键,通过倒数第二段马路顽童对他弟弟讲的话,我们才理解了马路顽童在第四段中说的“I wish that I could be a brother like that”的真正含义是想做一个像Paul的哥哥那样的兄长,这也正是他想告诉弟弟的。

 

  • 4.We can infer from the story that    .

A.Paul couldn’ t understand the urchin

B.the urchin had a deep love for his brother

C.the urchin wished to have a rich brother

D.the urchin’ s wish came true in the end

【解析】B

这是一道理解归纳题,要通过对全文的理解才能得出,文章所要反映的恰恰正是顽童对他残疾弟弟所拥有的深深的爱。

 

  • 5.The best title of the story is    .

A.A Christmas Present     B.A Street Urchin

C.A Brother Like That    D.An Unforgettable Ride

【解析】C 这是一道中心主旨题。文章曾两次出现 a brother like that,一次是Paul猜想的,一次是顽童自己说的,但两者含义截然相反,为什么呢?文章就此埋下了伏笔,随着故事情节的发展,原因也就明朗了。因此C作为文章的题目最合适。

 

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